Normally, in a Test match, both the teams bat two times. Each of them has two innings, which they take in turn. Following the second innings, the team that batted second can score 200 or more runs behind the side that batted first time can be asked to bat again. This is called “follow-on.”
It is completely up to the captain of the first batting side, if the opponents are to be made follow on or not. But it is usually done, and the opponents are allowed the opportunity.
In the cricket, different fielding restrictions are compulsory to follow in different matches to discourage a few bowling tactics, or to push the batsmen to play big shots that help them to hit 4s and 6s. Each team has 9 fielders apart from the bowler and the wicket-keeper. As a rule, the captain makes a decision about the fielding positions and restrictions after consulting with the bowler.
In Test cricket matches, however, the fielding restrictions are moderated as measured up to a One Day International.
The 30-yard circle and the 15-yard circle are the indicators which are adopted in one-day cricket matches to separate the fielding area for the fielding restrictions.
Though not mandatory, the 15-yard limit circle is marked at both the ends of the pitch within 15 yards radius from either side of the wicket. Generally, the markers are just used to specify the limits of 15-yard limit.
The 30-yard circle area include both the pitch and the 15-yard circles. It’s at the 30 yards distance from the nearest wickets. This area needs to be demarcated clearly for all the one-day cricket matches.
Although, there is no fielding restriction circle in the limited over games, there are several restrictions on the positions of fielders in test cricket. The restrictions include:
Though appearing strange, in reality, no regulations are there for the cricket field dimension. There is a clear mention of any distance of the boundary from the center, except the necessity of an agreement between the captains and umpires on the boundary line ahead of the toss. The boundary should be discerned with a white line or a rope with a distance of 2.74 m inside the perimeter fencing.
The size of the cricket field may vary with the variation of the ground. But the pitch must be always a rectangular measure 22 yards (20.12m) length and 10ft (3.05m) width. The batting crease is measured 22 yards or 20.12 meters in length and 5 feet or 1.52 meters in width. The cricket pitch is measured between the middle stumps of each set of wickets at each end.
The crease is the area in the cricket demarcated by white lines painted or chalked on the field of play, and followed by the cricket rule. They help to determine right performance in different ways for the batting and fielding side. Crease is the area where both the batsmen and bowlers operate the playing of cricket.
The crease, the size of the field, on which the game is played varies from ground to ground. But, the pitch is of same size. It is always rectangular in shape 20.12m in length and 10ft 3.05m in width.
Two sets of wickets pitched opposite, and corresponding to each other at a distance of 22 yards/20.12 m. It is pitched between the centers of the two middle stumps. Each of the is set 9 in/22.86 cm wide and consist of 3 wooden stumps with 2 wooden balls on top.
Cricket is played with two umpires. However, the modern cricket is played with 4 umpires. Two umpires are on-field and the third one is Video replay. The fourth umpire looks after the balls and takes care of the on-field umpires or replace the one if necessary. The umpire should ensure that the game is being played following the rules and the equipments used in the match are all in accordance with the laws. There is a match referee who controls a Professional cricket match, by inspecting the game from outside the field.
The part of the left of a right-handed batsman facing the bowler, is called the leg side or the on side, whereas that to the right is the off side. If the batsman is left-handed, the leg-side or the off-sides are inverted and the fielding positions are just the reversed of those shown above.
Off spin is one of the two types spin bowling. The other is the leg–spin. Right-handed off spin bowlers spin the ball so that, to a right-handed batsman, the ball spins towards the batsman, from the off side to the leg side when it bounces. The bowlers generally make use of their fingers to spin the ball.
In cricket a googly involves gripping the ball in the same action as a leg spinner. It is a type of illusory delivery performed by a right-arm leg spin bowler. The bowlers, instead of making the ball turn from the leg-side to the off-side, goes to the other way, thus confusing the batsman. A leg spin bowler bowls in a leg spin way, but it goes in the off side path.
A bowler makes a seam bowling by using the seam(line of stitching) of the ball to send the ball off the pitch. If the ball is thrown to bump the pitch at a definite angle, different variation may be caused. Only a skilled seam bowler is able to seam bowling that can manage the deviations.
While the swing bowling is sent out into the air, and if it is swing inward it is called “in-swing” and if the swing goes outside, it is called “out swing”
Swing can be controlled by keeping one side of the ball well polished and shining and allowing the other side to scruff up naturally during the game. Though, the controlled swing bowling needs a great skill.
Chucking is an illegal delivery of the ball. If there is any straightening of the arms just before the delivery of the ball. It is illegal because the extension of the hand gives the bowler an additional advantage of the speed of the ball.
The imaginary area of 4” by 2”on both sides of the pitch right in front of the stumps is called “danger area.” The area must be secured from the fielders and bowlers. The zone is 1.22m from the popping crease, and within 30.48m from either side of the middle stump.
When a ball is delivered below the elbow level, it is called underarmed bowling. Today it is incredible to believe that cricket was originally played in this way. The underarm bowling meant that it was unworkable for the batsman to strike six. It was only in the beginning of 1800 that a man called John Willes experimented with over-arm as well as round-arm action that stunned everybody. Presently, only in blind cricket underarm bowling is allowed. Presently, except in blind cricket underarm bowling in any other competition is treated as “no-ball.”
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